The General Assembly, by its resolution 44/25, adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child. As at 1 July 2012, the Convention had been ratified or acceded to by 193 States, and 2 States had signed but not yet ratified the Convention. By its resolution 54/263, the Assembly adopted two Optional Protocols to the Convention. As of 1 July 2012, the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict had been ratified by 147 States, and the Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography had been ratified by 158 States. Pursuant to resolution 66/141, safeguarding the rights of indigenous children is the focus of section IV of the present report, which highlights issues relating to the human rights of indigenous children; cross-cutting issues such as respect for cultural identity; protection from discrimination and the implementation of the rights of indigenous children; education; health; protection; participation; and perspectives on ways forward.