Global resources and key

Promising practices in community engagement for elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive

Promising practices in community engagement for elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothe

The methods used in this study included literature review and key informant interviews. “Community engagement” was defined broadly to include participation, mobilization and empowerment, while excluding activities that involve communities solely as the recipients of information or services. A “promising practice” was defined as a practice for which there is documented evidence of effectiveness in achieving intended results and some indication of replicability, scaleup or sustainability.

The promising practices identified through this research are organized below in terms of their primary intended outcome. The study describes each practice, provides documented examples, and summarizes the lessons learnt.

Scaling Up Paediatric HIV Care with an Integrated, Family-Centred Approach: An Observational Case Study from Uganda

Family-centred HIV care models have emerged as an approach to better target children and their caregivers for HIV testing and care, and further provide integrated health services for the family unit’s range of care needs. While there is significant international interest in family-centred approaches, there is a dearth of research on operational experiences in implementation and scale-up. Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors during scale-up of family-centred care in ten health facilities and ten community clinics supported by a non-governmental organization, Mildmay, in Central Uganda. Methods included key informant interviews with programme management and families, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS) uptake data. In the 84 months following the scale-up of the family-centred approach in HIV care, Mildmay experienced a 50-fold increase of family units registered in HIV care, a 40-fold increase of children enrolled in HIV care, and nearly universal coverage of paediatric cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The Mildmay experience emphasizes the importance of streamlining care to maximize paediatric capture. This includes
integrated service provision, incentivizing care-seeking as a family, creating child-friendly service environments, and minimizing missed paediatric testing opportunities by institutionalizing early infant diagnosis and provider-initiated testing and counselling. Task-shifting towards nurse-led clinics with community outreach support enabled rapid scale-up, as did an active management structure that allowed for real-time review and corrective action. The Mildmay experience suggests that family-centred approaches are operationally feasible, produce strong coverage outcomes, and can be well-managed during rapid scale-up

Strengthening Child Protection Systems in Sub- Saharan Africa: A Call to Action - Joint Inter-agency Statement

This Statement draws on a growing body of practice and evidence on child protection systems strengthening in Sub-Saharan Africa,1 and is inspired by the dialogue and findings of a multi-agency conference on the topic that took place in Dakar, Senegal in May 2012. Ten organisations convened on April 10–11, 2013 in Dakar to determine the technical content of this Statement.2 Readers may wish to refer to the substantial body of literature and resources on child protection systems in sub-Saharan Africa that was assembled and organised after the Dakar conference, including the Working Paper on Child Protection Systems Strengthening in Sub-Saharan Africa.


UNAIDS Investment framework for AIDS: Questions and answers


Investment Framework on AIDS: Questions and answers

This document provides a series of frequently asked questions and answers relating to the New Investment Framework for the global HIV response.


November 2011





Thematic areas: 

Increasing effectiveness of services and funding



Global resources and key documents

Stop AIDS Alliance brief on Social Protection


Achieving social protection for people and households affected by HIV is a critical step towards the realisation of universal access to prevention, treatment, care and support. Evidence shows that HIV-sensitive social protection can reduce vulnerability to HIV infection, improve and extend the lives of people with HIV, and support individuals and households. Social protection plays a critical role in helping people overcome the structural inequalities that drive the HIV epidemic and that serve as barriers to treatment, testing, schooling and other essential services.Achieving social protection for people and households affected by HIV is a critical step towards the realisation of universal access to prevention, treatment, care and support. Evidence shows that HIV-sensitive social protection can reduce vulnerability to HIV infection, improve and extend the lives of people with HIV, and support individuals and households. Social protection plays a critical role in helping people overcome the structural inequalities that drive the HIV epidemic and that serve as barriers to treatment, testing, schooling and other essential services.

Status of the Convention on the Rights of the Child

The General Assembly, by its resolution 44/25, adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child. As at 1 July 2012, the Convention had been ratified or acceded to by 193 States, and 2 States had signed but not yet ratified the Convention. By its resolution 54/263, the Assembly adopted two Optional Protocols to the Convention. As of 1 July 2012, the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict had been ratified by 147 States, and the Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography had been ratified by 158 States. Pursuant to resolution 66/141, safeguarding the rights of indigenous children is the focus of section IV of the present report, which highlights issues relating to the human rights of indigenous children; cross-cutting issues such as respect for cultural identity; protection from discrimination and the implementation of the rights of indigenous children; education; health; protection; participation; and perspectives on ways forward.

Young 4 Real: Sexual reproductive health (SRH) materials for young people

For good sexual and reproductive health (SRH, young people need the knowledge, ability and services to make positive, informed, safe and responsible decisions about sex and sexuality. These leaflets and posters offer information and suggestions to help youth on sexual and reproductive health and related services.



The State of the Worlds Children.pdf

As the world marks 25 years of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, The State of the World’s Children calls for brave and fresh thinking to address age-old problems that still affect the most disadvantaged children. In particular, the report calls for innovation – and for the best and brightest solutions coming from communities to be taken to scale to benefit every child. #EVERYchild

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) The State of the World’s Children 2015: Reimagine the Future: Innovation for Every Child digital report is available at

Report of the Regional Consultation on the UNAIDS Strategy 2016-2021: East and Southern Africa

UNAIDS Strategy Regional Consultation - Reporting Template - ESA Final - longer version docx.pdf

Related resource: 

RIATT-ESA feedback on UNAIDS HIV Strategy 2016-2021

This is the UNAIDS report on the one-day consultation held in a Johannesburg hotel. This consultation used plenary and group discussions to elicit answers to the 5 questions from the UNAIDS Discussion Paper, across seven themes identified as critical for the region: Prevention, Treatment, eMTCT, Human Rights and Social Justice, Gender, Community Engagement, Political Commitment and Sustainability.


Working paper - children living with and affected by HIV in residential care


In many countries, significant numbers of children are temporarily or permanently cared for in residential care. Evidence suggests that the phenomenon of residential care has been growing in recent years due to a complex interplay of different factors, among them HIV and AIDS. To date, there is no systematic information on the numbers of children living with or directly affected by HIV who are placed in residential care, the reasons for and the impacts of their placement on individual children, their families and communities and on the residential care facilities themselves.

This paucity of data makes it difficult to monitor the success of efforts to support family-based care, prevent separation and promote reunification for all children, including those affected by HIV. It also impairs efforts to ensure that children living with HIV in residential care are able to access HIV-specific services that are supportive and appropriate.

This is a working document which will be continually updated. If you have information and evidence to share, or questions on this report, please email:

The Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children: A United Nations Framework

The Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children were borne from a recognition of significant gaps in the implementation of the UNCRC for millions of children worldwide either without, or at risk of losing, parental care. The international community has therefore come together and developed these Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children. They are the result of five years of discussions and negotiation between the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, governments led by Brazil, UNICEF, experts and academics, representatives of non-governmental organisations and, last but not least, young people with care experience. Read more...

New Investment Framework for the global HIV response

New Investment Framework for the global HIV response Lancet article

Related resource: 

New Investment Framework for the global AIDS response - UNAIDS Brief

Community mobilisation and the New Investment Framework

UNAIDS Investment Framework for AIDS: Questions and answers

Substantial changes are needed to achieve a more targeted and strategic approach to investment in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic that will yield long-term dividends. Until now, advocacy for resources has been done on the basis of a commodity approach that encouraged scaling up of numerous strategies in parallel, irrespective of their relative eff ects.

We propose a strategic investment framework that is intended to support better management of national and international HIV/AIDS responses than exists with the present system. Our framework incorporates major efficiency gains through community mobilisation, synergies between programme elements, and benefi ts of the extension of antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission.

It proposes three categories of investment, consisting of six basic programmatic activities, interventions that create an enabling environment to achieve maximum eff ectiveness, and programmatic efforts in other health and development sectors related to HIV/AIDS. The yearly cost of achievement of universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support by 2015 is estimated at no less than US$22 billion.

Implementation of the new investment framework would avert 12·2 million new HIV infections and 7·4 million deaths from AIDS between 2011 and 2020 compared with continuation of present approaches, and result in 29·4 million life-years gained. The framework is cost eff ective at $1060 per life-year gained, and the additional investment proposed would be largely off set from savings in treatment costs alone

Family first: prioritising support to kinship carers, especially older carers

Family first: prioritising support to kinship carers

This paper demonstrates how recognising the value of kinship care, and addressing the challenges faced by children and carers, is likely to lead to a range of positive outcomes, including improved education and child protection, and better physical health and psychosocial well-being for older persons.

In some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, 90% of children who have lost one or both parents are looked after by relatives, in many countries, the effects of HIV & AIDS have left older relatives caring for children, and in countries such as Malawi, where large numbers of adults migrate for work, children are being cared for by their grandparents or other relatives.

Most of these arrangements are informal and therefore children and their carers may be missing out on social protection and benefits. Older carers may find it difficult to support children financially. While many kinship carers do their best, children, especially girls, may be exposed to discrimination and abuse.

The prevalence of kinship care means that this issue is not just of concern for those with a narrow alternative care or child protection remit, but also requires commitments from agencies working in health, social protection, justice and education to ensure that the needs of children in kinship care and their carers are met.

For more information on this initiative, please contact:

Kids ART Education Series - The Children's Treatment Literacy Toolkit

Responding to the HIV and AIDS Related Needs of Children in Southern Africa

The package, Kids ART Education Series (KAES) shares knowledge, facts and a series of creative and fun activities, centered around children and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Children can share it with their peers, family, friends and other members in the community. Children living with HIV are a critical group of people living with HIV (PLHIV), and are often overlooked when efforts are made in promoting community ART literacy.

This package contains the following tools:

- ART Knowledge Board Game,
- Pack of 20 ART Quiz cards,
- Interactive Poster,
- Three types of Advocacy Stickers,
- Kids Adherence Calendar
- A Watch to help with adherence,
- TB, HIV and Children Brochure,
- Kids ART Adherence Calendar and

A series of 8 booklets entitled:

Introduction to Children's ART Literacy Series
HIV & AIDS and My TreatmentMy Family and My Treatment
My Body and My Treatment
People who Support me with My Treatment
My Daily Life and My Treatment
My Future and My Treatment
Learning About My Treatment can be Fun

Policies for orphans and vulnerable children: A Framework for moving ahead


Policies for orphans and vulnerable children: A Framework for moving ahead.pdf

This paper aims to present a summary of the global OVC situation and current policy responses; to outline existing policy frameworks for responding to OVC; to identify policy-level gaps in national responses to the growing crisis of OVC; and to propose a country-level “OVC policy package” and recommendations for future policy dialogue and action

Hesperian’s bilingual Amharic/English language hub: Helping Children Who Are Deaf

We are excited to announce the launch of Hesperian’s bilingual Amharic/English language hub, featuring bilingual navigation menus and the full-book PDF download of Helping Children Who Are Deaf in Amharic. Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia, is also spoken in the many countries around the world where Ethiopian immigrants and refugees have settled, including approximately 150,000 first generation immigrants in the United States.  

We expect individuals and organizations to access Helping Children Who Are Deaf  through this new language hub, and use it to set up and improve early childhood development programs and programs for deaf children and their families in Amharic speaking populations. Access to services increases and outcomes improve when new immigrants are provided with health materials and information in their own languages.

We need to increase the number of digital Amharic resources available in the hub! Help us today by making a donation, giving the gift of health (your gift will be matched through March!), buying Hesperian titles from our online bookstore, and by spreading the news about this important new resource!

Paediatric advocacy toolkit: For improved paediatric HIV diagnosis, care and treatment in high HIV prevalence countries and regions



Pediatric advocacy toolkit: For improved pediatric HIV diagnosis, care and treatment in high HIV prevalence countries and region

This Paediatric HIV Treatment Advocacy Toolkit was developed by members of the UNICEF Interagency Task Team on Children and AIDS (IATT-CABA) paediatric working group to support efforts in advocating for increased commitment to, and resources for, paediatric HIV diagnosis, care and treatment in high HIV prevalence countries and regions.

The use of this toolkit is aimed at generating a commitment among Ministries of Health (MOH) and relevant policymakers and partners to prioritize paediatric HIV treatment, and for these policymakers to take measureable actions to increase access to and quality of paediatric HIV treatment coverage.

Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM): An equity-focused strategy to improve access to essential treatment services for children

This statement presents the latest evidence for integrated community case management (iCCM) of childhood illness, describes the necessary programme elements and support tools for effective implementation, and lays out actions that countries and partners can take to support the implementation of iCCM at scale.

Enabling reform: Why supporting children with disabilities must be at the heart of successful child care reform

Enabling reform: Why supporting children with disabilities must be at the heart of successful child care reform

This research paper was developed jointly by the Better Care Network and EveryChild as part of the Better Care Network’s series of working papers on alternative care.

The paper argues that disability should be placed at the heart of child care reform due to the large number of children with disabilities living in harmful institutional care, the lack of support for families trying to care for children with disabilities, the lack of alternative care options for children with disabilities and legal and economic imperative to provide proper care for these children. It aims to inform those who are developing and implementing child care policies, and to demonstrate, through examples, how effective reform can be achieved.

The paper suggests that it is imperative for stakeholders working on both disability and alternative care to challenge discrimination and create the political will for reform, change national legislation and guidance on disability and alternative care to reflect the CRC, CRPD and Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children, provide better support to families caring for children with disabilities and, as a matter of priority, end the institutional care of all children and ensure that children with disabilities have a range of high quality family-based alternative care options open to them.

The report is available here