Southern Africa Developme

SADC Business Plan on Orphans and other Vulnerable Children and Youth 2009-2015


Poverty and under development remain daunting challenges for the SADC region. About two thirds of the population in the region live below the international poverty line of US1$ per day. Poverty in SADC is exacerbated by several factors among which are: (a) high levels of diseases in particular HIV and AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis. These have resulted in unprecedented levels of morbidity and mortality among the people of productive and reproductive age; (b) social conflict and in some cases war; (c) natural disasters such as recurrent droughts and floods associated with climate change which impact negatively on food security; (d) unemployment; (e) and low industrial growth and productivity which is reinforced by high levels of migration of skilled labour from the region. The combined impact of these factors is evident in the increasingly high numbers of orphans and other vulnerable children and youth (OVCY) and the often acute violation of human and child rights. The recent global economic turmoil is compounding on the already dire situation in the region. Health, social and economic forecasts suggest that household poverty and orphaning will remain high in the foreseeable future. Vulnerable and poor households such as those headed by children, women, older people, people living with disabilities and HIV and AIDS and the unemployed bear the brunt of these numerous challenges, with often little or no options to cope.

In view of these challenges, SADC developed specific interventions focusing on OVCY, elaborated through the Strategic Framework and Programme of Action for OVC, 2008 -2015 that was approved by SADC Ministers of Health and HIV and AIDS in November 2008 -2015. The Framework and this Business Plan, mark the first deliberate effort to mount a regional response on OVCY in SADC. The premise of the SADC approach to the care and support for OVCY is the recognition that people in particular children and young people who comprise the demographic majority, are the real wealth of SADC Member States (MS). Thus, the fundamental purpose of development should be directed at enlarging their human freedoms and capabilities by expanding the choices that they have, to live full productive and creative lives, contributing to sustainable development in SADC [Taken from the introduction].

Young People’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and Services Advocacy (YPISA) SRHR Champions Flipchart for Community Sessions


This Flipchart forms part of SAfAIDS’ Young People’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and Services Advocacy (YPISA) resource kit. YPISA is a set of initiatives designed to train and empower young people on sexual and reproductive health and rights and HIV services and to become champions, for adolescent sexual and reproductive health rights in their communities.

The YPISA Resource Kit consists of a Training Manual for training young people, caregivers and service providers and a Flipchart for use by the sexual and reproductive health and rights champions to train their peers.

SRHR champions are also provided with an identity badge, a notebook and pen, and a referral slip book, so that they can refer young people to the relevant service providers for further assistance.

Note for SRHR Champion - not all young people are alike. It is important to think about the individuals you are speaking to and consider their key health information needs. You need to consider the range of issues they may have about their sexual and reproductive health and select which sections of the Flipchart to spend more time on.

RIATT-ESA Evidence for policy and programming is now in Portuguese

South Africa government’s ratification of ICESCR

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.pdf

Civil society campaign for the Ratification of ICESCR 2013.pdf

Related resource: 

Press statement on South Africa government’s ratification of ICESCR

South African government finally ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCTR). 

ICESCR recognises that many people do not enjoy some of the most basic rights and responds to the fact that vast numbers of people live in poverty, go hungry, do not have adequate shelter and do not have access to education.

The rights in the ICESCR include:

  • The right to work and for everyone to earn a living through freely chosen work
  • The right to just and favourable conditions of work
  • The right to social security, including social insurance
  • The right to family protection
  • The right to an adequate standard of living, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and the continuous improvement of living conditions
  • The right to enjoy the highest possible standard of physical and mental health
  • The right to education, including compulsory primary education

Economic, social and cultural rights are important for everyone, particularly society's most vulnerable groups such as children.

The ICESCR provides for the rights of children through its articles on protection of the family, protection of children from economic and social exploitation, the right to education and provision for the reduction of still-birth rate and infant mortality. Its other provisions are important for children too, such as the right to self-determination, the right to social security, the right to an adequate standard of living, the right to be free from hunger, the right to the highest standard of physical and mental health, the right to take part in cultural life, the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and others.

Although the South African Constitution provides for a comprehensive package of social, economic and cultural rights, the provisions of the ICESCR are far more extensive. Ratification of the Covenant has made it binding and serves as a call to action to afford the people of South Africa a broader spectrum of entitlements.

RIATT-ESA Policy Briefs

Improving the understanding and build the evidence base around the kinds of interventions which are most effective for children made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS.

Download here the new evidence for policy and programming for vulnerable children.

Pathways from parental AIDS.pdf

Cash transfers.pdf

Household mobility.pdf

Substance abuse & educ.pdf

Adult treatment& children's education.pdf

Pyschosocial outcomes.pdf


Policy Brief: Household Mobility and School Drop-Out in Orphans and Vulnerable Children


Household mobility.pdf

A cohort study of over 600 children in Zimbabwe found that the time following moving households is one of high risk for school dropout. Interventions are needed to reduce household mobility and to ensure that children who move household are re-enrolled in school.

Pathways from parental AIDS.pdf

Cash transfers.pdf

Household mobility.pdf

Substance abuse & educ.pdf

Adult treatment& children's education.pdf

Pyschosocial outcomes.pdf

Key findings from a cross-sectional survey of over 6,000 children in South Africa include that AIDS orphanhood and parent AIDS-illness impact children through a set of linked factors. Family AIDS increases likelihood of parental disability, poverty, community violence, stigma and child abuse, and these in turn negatively impact children. These risk pathways work in chain effects – they link with each other to increase risks further.

Plan de travail de la SADC relatif aux orphelins et autres enfants et jeunes vulnérables 2009-2015


Related resource: 

SADC Business Plan on Orphans and other Vulnerable Children and Youth 2009-2015

La pauvreté et le sous-développement restent des défi s de taille pour a région de la SADC. Près de deux tiers de sa population vivent en dessous de la ligne de pauvreté et vivent avec moins d’un dollar US par jour. La pauvreté y est aggravée par plusieurs facteurs, notamment : (a) des niveaux élevés de VIH et du sida, de paludisme et de la tuberculose qui ont provoqué des niveaux de morbidité et de mortalité, sans précédent, parmi la population situé dans la tranche d’âge reproductive et économiquement productive ; (b) des conflits sociaux et dans certains cas des guerres ; (c) des catastrophes naturelles telles que les inondations et les sécheresses récurrentes liées aux changements climatiques et qui mettent en péril la sécurité alimentaire ; (d) le chômage ; (e) un faible de taux de croissance et de productivité industrielle qui est aggravé davantage par des niveaux élevés de migration d’une main d’oeuvre qualifiée quittant la Région. L’eff et combiné de ces facteurs se manifeste par le nombre croissant du nombre d’orphelins, d’enfants et de jeunes vulnérables (OEJV) et par la violation, souvent extrême, des droits humains et des droits de l’enfant. Par ailleurs, la récente crise économique mondiale contribue à l’aggravation d’une situation déjà pénible pour la Région. Les prévisions sanitaires, sociales et économiques suggèrent que la pauvreté des familles et le nombre d’orphelins resteront élevés pour autant qu’on puisse le prévoir. Les familles vulnérables et pauvres telles que celles dirigées par des enfants, des femmes, des personnes âgées, des personnes infirmes, des personnes vivant avec le VIH et par les chômeurs subiront de plein fouet ces nombreux défi s. Les options qui s’off rent à elles sont souvent limitées lorsqu’elles ne sont pas inexistantes.

Compte tenu de ces défi s, la SADC a mis au point des interventions spécifi ques axées sur les OEJV. Ces interventions ont été élaborées par le biais du Cadre stratégique et du Plan d’action pour les orphelins et les enfants vulnérables, 2008 – 2015 qui a été approuvé par les Ministres de la santé et du VIH et du sida de la SADC en novembre 2008. Le Cadre et le présent Plan de travail constitue la première démarche délibérée visant à mettre en place une riposte régionale sur la question des OEJV dans la SADC [Introduction].

Namibia National Agenda for Children 2012-2016

Namibia's National Agenda for Children 2012-2016

The Namibia National Agenda for Children 2012-2016 is a call to action to put the constitutional mandate on the rights of children into implementable strategies. The Agenda is anchored on five pillars: health and nourishment; early childhood development and schooling; HIV prevention, treatment, care and support; adequate standard of living and legal identity; and protection against neglect and abuse.

The importance of Namibia developing its first-ever National Agenda for Children was highlighted through the publication of Children and Adolescents in Namibia 2010: A Situation Analysis, and through a review of the National Plan of Action for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (2006-2010). Two critical issues were identified through these processes: that Namibia needed to adopt a multi-sectoral approach to planning and implementation towards child-centred development, and that we needed to look more broadly at the concepts of vulnerability and inequity through the lens of a child’s life cycle.

Through a broad-based consultative process which involved government, NGOs, civil society organisations, children and development partners, the national commitments for children were identified, discussed and prioritised. While these five-year commitments have been integrated into current sector policies and plans to a large extent, the National Agenda for Children brings them together concisely, which will enable all stakeholders to plan, implement and monitor their actions for children in a coordinated manner. The Agenda also serves as a major contribution to overall national development planning processes.

While the Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare has been assigned the task of facilitating the development of the national agenda for children, the primary responsibility for ensuring that is is implemented lies with the line ministries and their partners.

Mental health and development: Targeting people with mental health conditions as a vulnerable group


This report presents compelling evidence that people with mental health conditions meet major criteria for vulnerability. The report also describes how vulnerability can lead to poor mental health, and how mental health conditions are widespread yet largely unaddressed among groups identified as vulnerable. It argues that mental health should be included in sectoral and broader development strategies and plans, and that development stakeholders have important roles to play in ensuring that people with mental health conditions are recognized as a vulnerable group and are not excluded from development opportunities. The recommended actions in this report provide a starting point to achieve these aims [Taken from summary].

Minimum Package of Services for Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children and Youth


The SADC region is facing an unprecedented increase in the number of children and youth who are deprived of basic services that they need to survive and grow up well. There are many who are either not at all enrolled in school or who drop out before completing primary schooling. The region continues to be home to the majority of global children who cannot survive to celebrate their 5th birthday. Food insecurity also remains a major challenge. The majority of youth who live in very poor families and households are not skilled and cannot find employment, and thus can no longer cope. There are still many cases where laws and cultural beliefs do not protect and safe guard orphans to inherit the wealth of their parents and guardians when they die. Cases of child abuse and child labour are high including trafficking for commercial exploitation. Deprivation and vulnerability of children and youth in the region is largely caused by high levels of HIV and AIDS, poverty (which has been exacerbated by the global financial and economic crisis) and in some cases conflict and natural disasters.

The vulnerabilities of children and youth pose a serious threat to regional socioeconomic integration and development, peace and security. To mitigate these challenges, SADC has taken the position that it is more appropriate to define basic needs and services for vulnerable children and vulnerable youth, and to provide these services in a comprehensive and holistic manner across the region [Taken from Foreword]. 

Pacote Mínimo De Serviços Para Orfãos E Outras Crianças E Jovens Vulneráveis



Related resource: 

Minimum Package of Services for Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children and Youth

Programme Minimum De Services Destinés Aux Orphelins, Aux Autres Enfants Et Jeunes Vulnérables

A região da SADC enfrenta um aumento inédito no número de crianças e jovens que estão privados dos serviços básicos que eles necessitam para sobreviverem e crescerem bem. Existem muitos deles que nem estão matriculados em nenhuma escola ou que desistem antes de completarem o ensino primário. A região continua a ser á area com a maioria global de crianças que não conseguem sobreviver para celebrarem o seu 5º aniversário. A insegurança alimentar também continua a ser um grande desafio. A maioria dos jovens que vivem em famílias muito pobres não tem habilidades e não conseguem encontrar emprego, e deste modo não conseguem enfrentar as dificuldades. Ainda existem muitos casos onde as leis e crenças culturais não garantem a salvaguarda dos órfãos para herdarem a riqueza dos seis pais e tutores quando estes morrem. Existem muitos casos de abuso de crianças e trabalho infantil, incluindo o tráfico ou exploração comercial. A privação e a vulnerabilidade das crianças e jovens na região são na maior parte provocadas por altos níveis de HIV e SIDA, pobreza (que foram agravados pela crise global financeira e económica) e em alguns casos conflitos e calamidades naturais.

As vulnerabilidades das crianças e jovens colocam uma séria ameaça à integração e desenvolvimento regional sócio-económico, paz e segurança. Para mitigar estes desafios, a SADC tomou a posição mais apropriada para definir as necessidades e serviços básicos para as crianças vulneráveis e jovens vulneráveis, e para providenciar estes serviços de maneira abrangente e holística na região [prefácio].

Getting it right for children: Moving towards universal access for prevention, care and treatment for children affected by HIV and AIDS

Getting it right for children: Moving towards universal access for prevention, care and treatment for children affected by HIV a

Meeting report from the RIATT-ESA regional conference that took place from 29 September-2 October 2008, in Dar es Salaam.

As a step towards building a regional strategy on children and AIDS, the RIATT identified the need to hold a regional conference and provide a platform for multi country, interagency and intergenerational exchange around key evidence-based findings and recommendations on universal access to prevention, treatment, care and support for children in the context of HIV and AIDS.

Approximately 300 delegates from 19 countries in East and Southern Africa, including 23 children and 12 older carers, convened in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania for the “Getting it Right For Children: Moving Towards Universal Access for Prevention, Care and Treatment for Children Affected by HIV and AIDS” Conference. In addition to the children and older carers, delegates were made up of senior level government representatives, UN agencies, civil society organizations, international cooperating partners, and research and academia.