Good Practice Guide: Adolescent HIV programming, READY – Here we come!

A greater understanding of HIV in high prevalence countries has increased awareness of the need to prioritise adolescents in HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.

This Good Practice Guide was developed by International HIV/AIDS Alliance to offer programme managers and service providers concrete implementation guidance and support as they seek to address adolescents’ needs more effectively. It is intended to shape a provider’s approach and work so that adolescents living with HIV and those from key populations can obtain the services they need and live healthy, productive lives.  

Click here to download the Good Practice Guide 

“Not Taking it Will Just be Like a Sin”: Young People Living with HIV and the Stigmatization of Less-Than-Perfect Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy

Research by Sarah Bernays, Sara Paparini, Janet Seeley and Tim Rhodes explores young people’s perspectives and understanding on adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy and the place of the clinics. 

Abstract

Global health priorities are being set to address questions on adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy in adolescence. Few studies have explored young people’s perspectives on the complex host of social and relational challenges they face in dealing with their treatment in secret and their condition in silence. In redressing this, we present findings from a longitudinal qualitative study with young people living with HIV in the UK, Ireland, US, and Uganda, embedded within the BREATHER international clinical trial. Drawing from Goffman’s notion of stigma, we analyze relational dynamics in HIV clinics, as rare spaces where HIV is“known,” and how young people’s relationships may be threatened by non-adherence to treatment. Young people’s reflections on and strategies for maintaining their reputation as patients raise questions about particular forms of medicalization of HIV and the moralization of treatment adherence that affect them, and how these may restrict opportunities for care across the epidemic.

Click here to read the full article 

Promising Practices in Integrating HIV and SRH Services for Adolescents and Young People Living with HIV

Evidence shows that adolescents and young people access to comprehensive SRH information and services leads to improved health outcomes. Currently many existing SRH services are not comprehensive and do not meet the unique needs of adolescents and young people. This promising practice brief highlights successful facility- level models that respond to the unique SRH service needs of AYPLHIV.

This document draws on data from six surveys submitted from PATA network members and partners through a call for promising models of practice in comprehensive HIV and SRH services.

Click here to download the brief. 

Promising Practices in Peer Support for Adolescents and Young People Living with HIV

The principles of peer engagement are increasingly being applied to support populations of adolescents and young people living with HIV (AYPLHIV). As a critical key population of people living with, and at risk of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, a focus on peer support is timely. This promising practice brief highlights the importance of peer-to-peer dialogue and engagement as both a significant challenge and a powerful opportunity.

Click here to download the brief. 

Mmata Tswana (My Partner) - Community Caregiver Support Groups to Improve ART Adherence Amongst Adolescents Living with HIV

The Mmata Tswana model is a community caregiver support group model which offers an opportunity for caregivers to:

  • Meet, discuss and learn from one another about ART adherence and caring for adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV);
  • Provide psychosocial support to one another;
  • Offer general care-giving support to one another by, for example accompanying each other’s children for scheduled appointments, as well as assisting them with treatment as necessary; and
  • Create a community of knowledge about adolescents’ treatment and health needs to minimise the risks associated with loss to follow-up when a caregiver is unable to take care of an adolescent. 

Click here to download the brief.

Promising Practices in Health Provider Sensitisation for Adolescents and Young People Living with HIV

While the importance of sensitising health providers to the needs of adolescents has increasingly been acknowledged, there remains a gap in documented interventions and models of practice as to how this can be actioned. This promising practice brief was developed in acknowledgement of the urgent need for operational evidence on health provider sensitisation.

Click here to download the brief.

Promising Practices in Clinic-Community Collaboration

February 2017, Luanne Hatane from Paediatric Aids Treatment for Africa (PATA) presented Promising Practices from PATA's Clinic-Community Collaboration Project at the Regional Learning and Linking Forum for Accelerating Delivery of Comprehensive Services for Orphans and Vulnerable Children & Youth, 9th – 10th February 2017 Johannesburg, South Africa.

PATA is network of health providers and associated health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. The PATA Clinic-Community Collaboration Project is being implemented in 8 East and Southern African countries, namely Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, Uganda, Cameroon, Zambia, DRC, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. Three projects are being implemented in 36 clinics, with four partnerships per country across the nine participating countries. The objectives of the three-year project are to:

  • Improve PMTCT and paediatric HIV service delivery through establishing clinic and community health partnerships.
  • Identify and disseminate challenges, lessons learned and best practices for clinic -community linkages.

Click here to download the presentation. 

Click here to download the full policy brief: Clinic - CBO Collaboration (C3) Programme

Latest Developments in ECD Research and Programme Experiences

February 2017 Dr Marc Aguirre from HOPE worldwide presented the Latest Developments on ECD Research and Programme Experiences at the Regional Learning and Linking Forum for Accelerating Delivery of Comprehensive Services for Orphans and Vulnerable Children & Youth, 9th – 10th February 2017 Johannesburg, South Africa

The presentation describe how access to good-quality care and education programmes outside the home are important in providing children with the basic cognitive, language and social skills they need to flourish in school and later life. The impact not only affects the current generation but also risks trapping families and children in poverty for generations. The presentation highlighted sub-Saharan Africa as disproportionately affected due to poverty, stunting and only 25% of eligible children attending preschool.

Click here to download the full presentation

Click here to download the Lancet series on Advancing Early Childhood Development: From Science to Scale

Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program (AGEP): Mid-Term Findings

The Population Council is implementing and evaluating a program for vulnerable adolescent girls in Zambia to help them avoid early marriage; sexually transmitted infections, including HIV; and unintended pregnancy.

The Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program (AGEP) is a four-year effort to support more than 11,000 of the most vulnerable adolescent girls in Zambia. The program was designed to find the best way to improve girls’ social, health, and economic resources so that they can stay in school longer; avoid early marriage; delay sexual activity; and prevent unintended pregnancy, HIV, and other STIs.

This mid-term analyses looks at a range of short and long-term indicators and provides insights for future program design for adolescent girls in Zambia.

Click here to download the report and policy brief

For more information go to: http://www.popcouncil.org/research/adolescent-girls-empowerment-program 

Does Keeping Adolescent Girls in School Protect against Sexual Violence? Quasi-Experimental Evidence from East and Southern Africa

Sexual violence against women and girls is widespread globally. In their lifetime, one in three women will experience intimate partner physical or sexual violence and 7 per cent will experience forced sex by someone other than an intimate partner. 

This study finds protective effects of educational attainment against lifetime experience of sexual violence among women in Uganda, but not in Malawi. In the pathway analyses this research also found large impact on delaying marriage in both countries. These results suggest that policies aimed at increasing educational attainment among girls may have broad-ranging long-term benefits.

Click here to download the full report. 

Source: UNICEF Office of Research- Innocenti 

Gender Socialization during Adolescence in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Conceptualization, influences and outcomes

Adolescence is a critical period in the development of gender attitudes and behaviours, which have potentially life-long effects.

This paper set out to provide a conceptual understanding of the gender socialization process during adolescence, its influences and outcomes, and practical suggestions on how to use this knowledge in the design of policies and programmes to improve gender equality. The paper concludes with recommendations for more holistic policy and programming efforts around gender socialization in adolescence.

Click here to download the discussion paper

For more information go to: https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/885/ 

Guidelines on Children’s Reintegration

Family for Every Child has just launched Guidelines on Children’s Reintegration which are intended to help governments, donors, NGOs, faith-based organisations and practitioners to pursue reintegration as the primary response in cases of separated children.

Despite the importance of family reintegration, to date, solid guidance for safe and effective reintegration is limited. These guidelines attempt to fill this gap. They explore cross-cutting principles of good practice in children’s reintegration, and provide guidance on programme design for work with children, families, schools and communities. 

Click here to download the guidelines. 

For more information go to: http://www.familyforeverychild.org/our-impact/guidelines-on-childrens-reintegration/

Schools that care: A review of linkages between children’s education and care

This report by Family for Every Child suggests that a lack of access to quality education is a key cause of inadequate care. Some groups of children are more vulnerable than others to inadequate care caused by a lack of access to education. These groups include children with disabilities, girls, children living in poverty and displaced, refugee, migrant and minority groups.

The report presents the key findings of a scoping study on the links between education and children’s care. The study involved a literature review in English, French and Spanish; key informant interviews; and consultations with 170 children, carers, teachers and other stakeholders in Guyana, India, Russia and Rwanda

Click here to download the full report

UNICEF New Series of Research Methods briefs to Strengthen Evidence on Adolescents

Of the 1.6 MILLION adolescents living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 1.2 million are located in Eastern and Southern Africa (UNICEF, 2015d). Adolescents is a period of physical, intellectual and social developmental changes that may put an adolescent at a higher risk of vulnerability. Especially for adolescents living in poor resource settings and those living with or affected by HIV.

New HIV infection rate in adolescents is the only age-group in which there has been little progress, as such there has been a recent focus on to call for programmes and policies that are sensitive the specific needs of adolescents wellbeing. Despite this comprehensive data collection systems and research for effective interventions were lacking.

With the aim of improving efforts to collect rigorous evidence for programmes and policies on adolescent health and well-being. UNICEF Innocenti in partnership with Columbia University and experts from the Lancet Commission on Adolescent Health and Well-being recently released a series of briefs. These briefs provide a review of contemporary research methodologies for adolescent well-being in low- and middle-income countries and will assist a wide range of professionals and stakeholders who conduct, commission or interpret research findings to make decisions about programming, policy and advocacy.

  1. Improving the methodological quality of research in adolescent well-being
  2. Data and indicators to measure adolescent health, social development and well-being 
  3. Inclusion with protection: Obtaining informed consent when conducting research with adolescents 
  4. Research with disadvantaged, vulnerable and/or marginalized adolescents 
  5. Adolescent participation in research: Innovation, rationale and next steps 
  6. How to measure enabling and supportive systems for adolescent health 
  7. Methodologies to capture the multidimensional effects of economic strengthening interventions -

This initiative was funded by the UK Department for International Development. The Editors of the series were John Santelli, MD, MPH, Columbia University and Nikola Balvin, PsyD, UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti.

Source: https://www.unicef-irc.org/article/1590/

“She Cannot Just Sit Around Waiting to Turn Twenty” Understanding Why Child Marriage Persists in Kenya and Zambia

The findings of the 2016 report by the International Center on Research for Women (ICRW), confirm that adolescent girls in diverse communities of Kenya and Zambia face many of the same challenges as girls in areas where more evidence about child marriage exists. These include challenges in deciding when and whom to marry, in achieving their aspirations and in feeling supported by their parents and communities. However, the pathways to child marriage, and therefore the types of interventions that could be used to interrupt those pathways, are contextually-specific. Innovation and adaptation of existing programs will be necessary to meet the unique needs of adolescent girls, their families and communities in Kenya and Zambia, particularly guaranteed access to quality education. Click here to download the report